7th Framework Programme
     Achievements     03 Jul 2014

Exploitation / Achievements

Expected advantages for Europe

Results of REACT4C have been published in peer reviewed journals, reports, popular science magazines and on the internet (e.g. the project website http://www.react4c.eu), and have been presented at international conferences. The EC and co-operating partners received information at the earliest possible stage. In this way, which is via the European Commission, the Network European Environmental Advisory Committee (EEAC) could directly and indirectly be informed on project results. In particular, initial results from REACT4C have been available early enough for any upcoming IPCC Initiative to update the Special Report on Aviation. Furthermore, policymakers, stakeholders in the aviation sector and the general public have been informed via the internet, brochures and targeted workshops.

Many of the REACT4C participants have other important roles within the climate and aviation communities, for instance as ICAO/CAEP members, participants of the Clean Sky JTI and the SESAR JU, IPCC climate experts. Coordinators of other European projects are involved in the Consortium as well. This assures efficient dissemination of project results. Stakeholders in REACT4C range from airlines, aircraft manufacturers, engine manufacturers, service agencies, but also include regulators, policy makers and the general public. Adequate means of dissemination to these groups are presented below.

Dissemination to aeronautics stakeholders

As REACT4C has provided strategic important information on efficient flying with respect to fuel consumption, emissions and the climate impact of aviation, stakeholders have been involved in the project. For this reason an REACT4C Expert Panel has been established under the chairmanship of Dr. Herbert Pümpel, former Chief of the Aeronautical Meteorology Unit of WMO. This Expert Panel has been involved in this collaborative project from the beginning. Their contextual information on the challenges for ATM and other potential obstacles has been taken into account by the project. The meetings of the Expert Panel have been flanked by technical seminars specifically designed to the needs of stakeholders, and technical papers (e.g. on environmental cost functions), thematic papers, and position papers (e.g. on recommendations to include non-CO2 effects in ETS). Finally, in the fourth year focus has been given on identifying possible obstacles for implementing our newly developed procedure, and recommendations how to over-come them, have been provided. A public outreach event as a REACT4C stakeholder seminar was performed in the fourth year.

Community societal objectives

An objective of the European Union is to provide future mobility to the European and world population. Such mobility requires sustainable paths for future development. The ACARE targets were set out in order to contribute towards this sustainable development path. This requires eliminating inefficiencies within the air transport system. In air traffic management still such environmental inefficiencies do exist and provide the potential for improving environmental performance of aviation.

Another objective of the European Union is to reduce the risks arising from climate change to the European and world population. This requires the development of strategies for reducing climate-impacting emissions and for adapting to a changing climate. In both cases, quantitative knowledge of the various factors contributing to climate change is required. Future commitment periods to the Kyoto Protocol will potentially require further reductions of emissions and the inclusion of additional species. While the Global Warming Potential (GWP) provides a measure for comparing the six gases or groups of gases from the Kyoto basket, it fails when comparing (or trading) CO2 with precursors of shorter-lived species like ozone or with aerosols and contrails. For instance, Lee and Sausen (2000) pointed out the difficulties of including international aviation into the emission trading concept of the Kyoto Protocol.

REACT4C has explored possibilities to optimise flight trajectories under environmental aspects. The tool developed allows planning trajectories with less climate impact and its availability helps European policymakers in formulating policies for reducing emissions and evaluating mitigation measures. The improved information on the climate impact of emissions that has been achieved in the project allows industry to incorporate, with greater confidence, environmental considerations into both their design and development work and flight planning.

Reinforcing European Competitiveness

The European Commission has the possibility to exploit the new information provided by the project in negotiations on international treaties. As for the topic Impact of Aviation on Climate, where Europe is in a leading position, REACT4C results and the new possibilities increase the competence, visibility and reputation of European research. The early access to new information has strengthened the position of the European Commission and that of present European representatives in ICAO. REACT4C. The European influence in IPCC fora is expected to increase. Additionally, the project results help improving the competitiveness of European industry through the provision of the most up to date information (link to Clean Sky).